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The Montana Sedition Project
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The information below, on all persons charged with sedition under Montana law, was culled from court records in Montana, and from contemporaneous newspaper accounts. Please use this information accurately and in context and please credit The Montana Sedition Project.

Organized by county. A: Went to prison, B: Convicted, no prison. No letter: Not convicted

name county Information Case No. sentence what they said   age occupation entered DL left DL mos
Albert Brooks Beaverhead 4/20/18 735 7-15 Distributed an I.W.W. pamphlet titled "War and the Workers," by Walker C. Smith. Judgment reversed by Sup. Ct. on 4/8/20 (Docket No. 4419): 1) Judge denied counsel for defendant right to read pamphlet to jury, thus denied right to make known to jury the details of charge against defendent; 2) judge denied def. counsel right to challenge biased juror, who "entertained a bitter prejudice against (I.W.W.)." However, court noted that pamphlet "does contain some statements the natural and probable effect of which would be to obstruct the draft and the recruiting and enlistment service of the government," such as "Let those who own the country do the fighting! Put the wealthiest in the front ranks; the middle class next; follow these with judges, lawyers, preachers and politicians. Let the workers remain at home and enjoy what they produce. Follow a declaration of war with an immediate call for a general strike. Make the slogan, 'Rebellion sooner than War.'" A 29 laborer 5/24/18 5/4/20 24
Frank Healey Beaverhead 4/20/18 735 dism. Co-defendant with Brooks. Charges dismissed.            
Harry Peter Wolf Beaverhead 11/15/18 754 5-10 Sup. Ct. reversed in Oct. 1919 because information fails to specify what Wolff said on Aug. 2, 1918: "The particular words the prosecutor ultimately selected to prove the offense are left entirely to our imagination; and, so far as the record shows, the defendant himself was left completely in the dark...No one shall be held to answer an information unless the crime be charged with precision and fullness, to the end that the defendant may have ample opportunity to make his defense... A 38 carpenter 3/12/19 1/21/20 10
E.V. Starr Big Horn 5/12/18 17718 dism no specific language. Convicted in Rosebud County.            
Joseph Schulz Big Horn   17728 no complaint writ/ h.c.11/27/1918            
John Ruck Broadwater arraigned 4/15/1918 165 3-6 On 3/28, that he hoped Germany would sink every dam ship the Americans started across the ocean, or words subst. the same. A 57 carpenter 4/15/18 11/16/19 17
Albert Maker Broadwater 4/22/18 166 4-8 that the President of the U.S. was a Pro-German and a Traitor, and that the form of govt. of the U.S. was a joke, and other language of like import, all of which calculated to bring the form of government of the U.S into contempt, scorn and ridicule A 37 laborer 4/23/18    
Ben Kahn Carbon 3/11/18 457 7.5-20 On 3/6, in lobby of the Pollard Hotel in Red Lodge: "This is a rich man's war and we have no business in it; they talk about Hooverism--it's a joke. Nobody pays any attention to it. It don't amount to anything; The Lusitania was warned not to sail. They were carrying munitions and wheat over to the Allies. The poor man has no show in this war. The soldiers are fighting the battles of the rich." Judge instructed jury they could find only on third of 4 counts in information, of using "seditious language calculated to incite and inflame resistance to the administration of the federal food laws and regulations and Herbert Hoover, Federal Food Administrator." Sup. Ct. (Holloway) affirmed on 5/20/19 (just after Schenck, Frohwerk & Debs opinions) 56 Mont 108; 182 Pac. 107 (1918) #4267 A 38 trav. salesman 4/22/18 2/6/21 34
Frank B. Rakstis Carbon 9/26/18 475 $200 On 9/26/18 said: "I don't like this country and I don't like this government. I don't care for this country. I want to fight against this country, because America fights against my country and I want to fight against this country. If I could go today to my country I would fight this country." B          
James Albert McGlynn Carter 6/15/18 10 $500 Said on 3/29 that maimed children being exhibited in this country as having been injured by the Germans had in fact been maimed in factories in the eastern states (see S. Ct. opinion for full remarks). Found guilty Nov. 21. Jury had been 11-1 for conviction with recommendation of not less than 10-15 years in pen. One juror stuck out and a compromise of a $500 fine was agreed on. McGlynn refused to pay fine. In jail since that date, McGlynn got S. Ct to issue writ of habeas corpus. See HI 12/3. After release, McGlynn appealed his conviction and S. Ct. reversed on 6/27/21. 199 Pac. 708 (1921) #4472 B          
Frank May Cascade 5/9/18 1320 dism the newspapers of the US told lies about the Germans. . .            
Mike Luce Cascade 8/31/18 1344 dism I hope to God the Kaiser will win the war.            
John Sakish Cascade 8/31/18 1345 dism To hell with the United States            
Albert Schleman Choteau complaint 6/21/1918 5378 dism That his Father and Mother were both Germans, and that he was German, and was proud of it. Germany will win this war . . .            
Herman Heimann Choteau 6/12/18 5352. 5354 $500 I would as soon see President Wilson . . . .killed as the Kaiser B          
Herman Rohde Custer 4/12/18 847 4-8 Between 3/1 and 4/9, in presence of certain persons understanding German, did say in Max Frederick's saloon in Miles City and at Mike Wehinger's ranch in Pine Hills: That German army was then within 2 miles of Paris; they (Germany) ought to sink the boats carrying U.S. soldiers across; no more than right that Tuscania was sunk because enemy had warned America to keep off; certain Americans of German descent ought to stay with Germany and be in sympathy against U.S.; if Germans had come through Mexico invading the U.S., D would have helped the Germans--all with the felonious and seditious intent to spread German propaganda; to work sympathy and moral support in favor of Germany and against the U.S. A 74 farmer 6/14/18 4/17/21 34
Christian Bahe Custer 4/30/18 854 NG on 3/5 said that U.S. soldiers weren't worth a damn; that it was good enough for us to be licked because we had no business butting in; that U.S. didn't have any soldiers or guns and was short of ammunition; that U.S. would never be able to land any horses over there because the Germans would kill them in the boats before they ever landed on the other side; that we weren't fighting with our men but were just starving them on the other side; that Germany can't help but lick the world because the U.S. had nothing to fight with.            
Martin Wehinger Custer 4/30/18 854 3-6 That (at his ranch in Pine Hills?) on 4/3, said: There was nothing to the war and we would get licked; we had no business sticking our nose in there and we should get licked for doing so. In the first place we don't have any soldiers to amount to anything and those that did amount to something didn't have any guns and those behind them would have to wait until the first ones dropped so the other fellows could pick up the guns and fire; that one German soldier could kill 5 or 6 American soldiers without any trouble, because we didn't have any experience and were not trained and didn't know anything about war and we ought to get licked; that when the Tuscania was sunk it was just good enough for us because we didn't have any business carrying soldiers and guns at the same time; that if people here could read the German papers they would get the right news and that U.S. papers were not getting the facts; that U.S. is shipping a lot of good men over there and starving them to death. A 58 farmer 6/14/18 12/14/19 18
William McKee Custer 4/30/18 855 1-2 That on 4/28 said that he hoped that every s__ of a b____ that crossed the water would never come back; that he had money enough to buy flour sacks to make a white flag for every American soldier that went over there and came in contact with the Germans. Depositions re D's good character and patriotism from a dozen men in Stratford, S.D., where he was a hotelkeeper, and Harvard, Ia., where he was a farmer and merchant A 50 farmer 6/14/18 1/1/19 7
W.C. Shearer Custer 7/9/18 856 $500 That on 5/25 said that people in New York were cutting the hands and feet off young children and taking them around the country to make people in the U.S. think they were Belgian children maimed by the Germans. B          
T.W. Craig Custer 4/30/18 857 NG on 4/14 said that Quartermaster Corps was composed entirely of the regular army, no national army men being in the QMC; that Geo. Winterburn, Lt. Col QMC and J.W. Swartz, Sgt. Sr. grade QMC stationed @ Ft. Keogh were both pro-Germans and traitors to the U.S. and he could prove it.            
Ellsworth Burling Custer 6/3/18 867 1-2 That on 4/15 at Peterson's store in Moorhead said that if he had $10,000 he would not buy a Liberty Bond because the Liberty Bonds were nothing but a damn graft, and further that no matter what happened he would not eat corn bread. Witness also testified B said it was a rich man's war and let the rich men buy bonds. Not a paying proposition; they wouldn't pay over 40 cents on the dollar for them. Said he wouldn't drink coffee w/o 2-3 spoonfuls of sugar--I was telling him about being only allowed one spoonful. A 48 farmer 10/13/18 7/13/19 9
Louis Christensen Custer 7/9/18 877 2-5 That on 5/15 said that the Government of the United States is the worst Government on earth; that the soldiers had no right to be in France and that there ought not to be any Red Cross organization; that the war was to protect the money loaned to the Allied governments by the rich; that the Liberty loan was a graft and the soldiers did not get any benefit from it; (2nd Count) that the D would not be drafted and would not serve in the Army and that he would go to the penitentiary first; that the soldiers had no right to be in France; that if the soldiers were fools enough to go across and get shot they should be left to suffer; that he would not buy liberty bonds. A 33 carpenter 10/21/18 11/16/19 13
Eugene Poindexter Custer 7/20/18 887 dism? on 8/17 said that Germans were going to win this fight and he was damn glad of it; that U.S. had been trying to get into a fight for a long while and now they were in it and he hoped to God the Germans would whip them; that he had just bawled out one God damn yank and told him what he thought of him; that Germans were better than Yankees; that the Kaiser is the best man in the world and nobody knows it. Interesting W testimony about remarks while helping farmer build fence and RC women in knitting circle and remarks while drunk.            
Earnest Axel Tunander Custer 9/25/18 891 $500 On 9/24 said that he would not fight for U.S. and that he would fight for the Kaiser; that he would go to jail before he would fight for the U.S. W said another man hit him with a spittoon. D said he was drunk at Hobo Jim's (Holler & Osborne's) saloon in M.C. B          
Caspar Andersen Custer 10/28/18 894 $500 On 8/20, that it was not right for the young men to go to war and get killed; that defendant had been a soldier in Russia for two years~and thereby had learned that if a soldier could make his officer believe he could not understand Military orders, the officer would discharge such a soldier; that he had instructed one John Saaria to thus deceive the United States officers at Camp Lewis, Washington, and that John Saaria had done so and had thus played dummy and had pretended not to savvy (understand) orders in that Camp and thereby John Saaria had effected hls release from Camp and was back home; that soldiering was a hell of a job and that if certain young men then and there within United States draft ages were called to Training Camps and would do likewise and play dummy and pretend not to savvy (understand), they too would be dismlssed from Camp by the officers and be sent back home. B          
W.K. Smith Custer 5/22/18 861, 874 10-20 That on 4/15 at Sayle, said: This (meaning the United States) is the worst damn country on earth; that defendants were German sympathizers and if it wasn't for being sunk they would go to Germany and help them, but they didn(t want to be fish bait; that the war was for the benefit of the rich people; that the Liberty Bonds of the United States were By God all a damn graft and that one could borrow only $140 on a $1000; that they would not buy a Liberty Bond~under any consideration and that the Government ought to strike greenbacks instead of taking money from the people; that Wilson got us into the war and now let him get us out; that the war was none of their affairs and none of their war: that they would let their stuff rot in the ground before they would let clerks from town help harvest it; and that as soon as the war was over they would go to Germany and take up a farm because Germany would be the best place to live; that they would not plant their wheat because they would have to sell it and haul it to the railroad and they would feed it to the hogs instead; that Germany is going to win the war; that the United States ought to get licked in this war because we had no business in the war.

A 49 rancher 10/21/18 10/10/20 24
Janet Smith Custer 7/19/18 861, 875 5-10 That she "advocated turning the stock into the crops to prevent helping the government and killing off all the cripples, insane, and convicts in order to save food instead of making all the food restrictions," that the Red Cross was a "fake" and "while she didn't mind helping the Belgians with the relief work, the trouble was the damn soldiers would get it." Allegedly sent back War Savings Stamps. A 42 housewife 10/21/18 12/14/20 26
Richard Leslie Wyman Dawson 4/23/18 3483 6-12 On 3/15 said "to divers persons...in speaking of the atrocities reported to be committeed by the German soldiers, that our soldiers would act in the same way and commit the same atrocities...and that soldiers of the U.S. Army are no better than the German soldiers and that his nephew, Owen, then a soldier in active service in the army, like a great many other soldiers in this country, would never have gone into the service if they had not been compelled to go; and that D would just as soon live under the Kaiser's government as under the gov't of the U.S. Wyman also sued by taxpayers for refusing to pay about $20,000 in fees collected by him into the country treasurer. Ordered removed from office on 6/29/18. Sentence affirmed. 56 Mont. 600, 186 Pac. 1 (1919) #4379 Sentence commuted to 5-12 years (making Wyman eligible for parole) May 21, 1921 by Gov. Dixon A 50 clerk 10/13/18 7/5/21 32
Jess Tarble Dawson 8/27/18 3498 dism? On 6/5, in the Missouri Breaks where chopping cedars n. of Jordan, said "I would rather live under the government of the Kaiser than under the gov't of the U.S. and I would rather see the Kaiser of Germany win the war than the U.S. because he is a better man than Wilson and it looks like he was going to win the war." Age 24. Folks from Maine.            
Patrick Harrigan Deer Lodge 5/10/18 1068 dism. "the sons of bitches (meaning the soldiers of the United States) are no good, we do not need any soldiers. The soldiers (meaning the soldiers of the United States) are no good and are a bunch of thieves and bums."            
Joe Rudig Deer Lodge 6/15/18 1072 $200 "Fuck the United States. I hope the Kaiser wins" B          
John Harrington Fergus 4/19/18 1106 2-4 On 3/15, uttered disloyal, profane language...(statutory pleading). Lack of specificity would have been grounds for successful appeal (see Wolff case in Beaverhead Co.) A 58 miner 4/19/18 4/13/19 12
Anton Schaffer Fergus 6/10/18 1110 $12,000 On 3/6 said "Those people in the White House and President Wilson has their bellies full of what they want to eat and I am going to have mine full of what I want, the same as the President." On 3/26 said "This government would be better off under German rule and us Germans could then send over to to the foreign countries for men and us Germans could do the bossing." On 4/5 said "If I was one of President Wilson's bodyguards, I would blow him up with a stick of dynamite while he was working in his office." On 4/13 said "The money spent for Liberty Bonds is going to Washington and is locked in the cells and will not help win the war." Signed over $13,000 in Liberty Bonds at 4% and 4.5% interest. State got $1,582.10 in interest. Sup. Ct. affirmed. 59 Mont. 463 197 Pac. 986 (1921)#4316 B          
L.C. Steffer Fergus 6/30/18 1116 $200 On 6/30 in Big Spring township, said "There are a bunch of sonsofbitches running the government, getting great big salaries that we have to pay for and they don't know more than you or I know. We have no business sending soldiers to France, we have no business in the war and should tend to our own business; it is a rich man's war and after the war 2 or 3 men will have all the money." B          
Matt Regan Fergus 6/17/18 1121 $250 On 4/18 said "This war makes me sick to my stomach; it is nauseating and makes me tired. They send soldiers over there and want to buy them graphaphones, pianos and automobiles. They send them over to fight and why in hell don't they make them fight?" B          
E.A. Foster Fergus 6/27/18 1122 $500 On 3/25 said "Because I don't carry the goddamm flag they call me pro-German; because I don't buy LIberty Bonds and don't carry the flag they call me a pro-German." B          
Franklin Gaver Fergus 9/18/18 1127 dism. On 7/20 said "I would go to hell before I would deprive myself of sugar to give to the Pimps that they are sending to the Training Camps, dancing and gambling." Charges dismissed 12/29/20 bec. Gaver was committed to Warm Springs on 11/22 and still there.            
Harry Yount Fergus 9/18/18 1128 dism. On 7/31 said 'The working men, poor damn fools, are paying the cost of the war. The government is rotten and big business is rotten. If the United States had not furnished the Allies with food, the war would have been over a long while ago. They had Heaney investigating Packing conditions; as soon as he found something the god-Damn government pulled him off. This country would be a lot better off if there were more of those IWW's in it. Escaped from co. jail on 11/6 and charges dismissed 12/29/20 because he could not be found.            
Fred Vogel Fergus 6/12/18 1107, 1119 1-12 On 3/6 said "You American sonofabitch, I was born under as good a flag [Switzerland] as you were and can whip any American SOB sho says that about the Kaiser" or words substantially the same in response to a patriotic and loyal remark concerning the flag of the U.S. A 56 butcher 6/26/18 5/11/19 11
Florence Miller Flathead 5/24/18 1036 $350 no info in case file; no specific language on complaint B          
J.M. Darby Flathead 10/21/18 1044 $200 "That he hoped the boys would come home starving, (referring to the United States soldiers): that our government was no better than Germany, referring to its cause in the war with Germany." B          
Nels Christensen Flathead 10/17/18 1045 dism "The United States is a joke anyway."            
Erick Tyschen Flathead 10/17/18 1046 NG "I'd rather cut my throat than serve in the U.S.A."            
Julius Heuer Gallatin 3/27/18 6146-A NG On 3/23 said "I hope the Germans will advance each day as much as they have."            
Earl Brown Gallatin 3/30/18 6151-A dism. On 3/15 said "I would rather be Court-martialed than be caught wearing a thing like that," about the uniform of the U.S. Evidence that refering to a soldier's boot or legging.            
Todd Stevens Gallatin 10/5/18 6155-A NG On 3/23, in reply to a statement of man who said "The Germans have captured 16,000 soldiers and 150 guns," replied, "I am glad of it. You fellows will vote for Wilson. I hope the Germans clean em up. I don't care what I come under. They won't allow me to feed my chickens and pigs now. This is what you get for putting in Wilson. The Dutch are driving them, and I hope they will drive them further."            
Frank McVey Gallatin 4/15/18 6157-A 2-4 At Logan on 4/11 said "I do not see why we should be fighting the Kaiser, and I don't see why people should go crazy over patriotism. The Kaiser and his government is better than the U.S.A. I would go over to Germany if I could." A 36 laborer 6/7/18 8/6/20 26
Frank Oscar Waara Gallatin 4/29/18 6164-A 1.5 - 3 On train b/ Three Forks and Harlowton on 4/21 said "Americans are no good, and I hope that Germany will win." A 37 laborer 6/7/18 5/11/19 11
Carl Rosenberg Gallatin 11/2/118 6272-A NG Info filed 11/2. Said "The Kaiser is a fine man. I have known him 40 years. The American soldiers are just babies, and when they get over there, the Germans will just tramp on them. The Kaiser had nothing to do with this war. It was the capitalists. They saw that the working people were getting too strong, and they wanted to kill them off. We will never whip the Germans, and after the war, they will teach German here."            
Charles Horhmann Granite 5/16/18 244 1-2 At Speckle Trout Mine in Philipsburg on 4/28 (acc. to testimony before J.P.) said officers who graduated from am. military schools were no better than dogs; that the government had cut the supply of sugar and cut off supply of booze to the army and said they would send the boys candy and they let a million tons of it rot in storage in New York and that treaties were nothing but scraps of paper and worthless; that we couldn't believe what we read in the paper, that the press of the U.S. is owned and controlled by Great Britain, that we would have to wait until after the war and get the news from both sides before we could decide which side was wrong; that stories of the barbaric practices in Belgium and France published in the paper were lies. Over in Germany they have the best country in the world. You get 3 marks a day--like $3. How cheap butter, eggs and stuff was. A 55 butcher 6/27/18 4/13/19 10
Eugene Petit Granite 6/10/18 245 NG Came into OK Bar in Philipsburg at 9 a.m. after cooking all night and said "I wish all the boys that are going over would be shot off or else drowned and that the Kaiser would get them all and also win this war."            
Edward Olson Granite 11/26/18 253 dism. On 10/4 said "This war was a rich man's war. The working men were given the worst of it," that capitalists got us into this war, that capitalists sent working men from this country 4 or 5,000 miles to kill the workingmen there and "I would rather kill the capitalists over here than kill one man in the trenches." After declaration, brought before County Council of Defense and examined under oath and then put in county jail. In mo. dismiss, C.A. sd. attitude may stem from fact D. wasn't paid for his labor, which made him indignant and very vindictive toward all capitalists, that he brooded over his fancied or real injustices to such an extent that he became insane and was confined to an insane asylum. "He is insane and absolutely harmless; does not belong to the criminal class."            
Daniel Lucas Hill 5/7/18 199 $400 "I would just as soon see the Kaiser come over and rule this country, as anyone else. I would just as soon pay the Kaiser as any one else." B          
Charles Zastrow Jefferson 8/23/18 306 suicide I have got to be damned careful as I made some strong remarks against this country and this damn president. If I had my way I would tar and feather this damn son of a bitch and take him from one town to the other and let him be seen for admission. He was elected to keep us out of war with Germany and if it wasn't for this damn President Germany would have won the war a long time ago but they are going to win just the same and no paper soldiers from this damn country is going to stop them. In Tony Diedtman's trial in Helena, Eberhard von Waldru accused Zastrow of providing the names of 100 Germans in Helena loyal to their native land. Released on $5,000 bail. Zastrow committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. See Jeff Co. Courier, 9/19/01, p. 11            
Frank Rooney Jefferson 11/9/18 310 $200 Charged in Oct. with saying "If the president was half as good as the Kaiser, there would be nothing to it (meaning the present war." B          
Ernest Eder Lewis & Clark 5/1/18 1451 dism no record            
Adam Steck Lewis & Clark 5/31/18 1454 1-3 On 5/6 said "I wish they would come after me some night to take me out to kiss the dirty rug (meaning the flag of the United States) what they call the American flag. I know I would die for our Kaiser (meaning the Emperor of the Germans) and Fatherland (meaning the Imperial Government of Germany) the same as the boys in the trenches. This damned country (meaning the govt. of the U.S.) is bankrupt already and do they (meaning the doldiers and salors of the U.S.) expect to lick Germany? No, they never did and they never will." A 53 bartender 2/12/19 9/14/19 7
John Milch Lewis & Clark 5/31/18 1455 $1,800 On 4/30, said "They expect us to buy Liberty Bonds, donate to the Red Cross and every God-damned thing, and the country won't do a fucking thing for us. We didn't have any business to go into a war in that place; we were out of it and should have stayed out of it. This is supposed to a be a free country but I be damned if it is. They tell you what to eat and what to drink. They are ...ing so God damn foolish they will tell you what name you have got to wear, but I be damned if I change my name. My name is Milch and I am German and I am dam proud of it. What did this country ever do for us except take taxes and revenue and don't give you a damn thing in return." B          
Frank Heil Lewis & Clark 5/31/18 1456 1-2 (susp.) On 4/26, said "I don't believe this country has any right to fight our country. All they need is a good licking and they are going to get it before William gets through with them. The guy in Washington needs a licking too and I wish they would give it to him good and quick." After sentence pronounced, judge suspended it, saying because D had never before been imprisoned and his character and circumstances were such that he was not likely to engage in an offensive course of conduct, therefore public safety does not require D shall suffer penalty. Placed on probation. A          
Joe Milch Lewis & Clark 5/31/18 1457 3-6+$3K (DID NO TIME) That on 5/2 said "Look at the pictures. I'll be damned if this is not the biggest lie. Do they expect to win this war with paper soldiers and boys? The old country has men and not 17-year-old kids. They call the Germans barbarians. Just look at this article. They are damn lies. What do they think of the Bohemians anyhow? They won't start any revolution. This damn President should go and fuck himself and Uncle Sam too. Uncle Sam's boys are getting a good fucking in France every day, but I wish Germany would come over here and give all of them a good fucking. The damn son of a bitch French, American and English aeroplanes bombarded some of the towns in Germany. You don't see a son of a bitch thing about it in the paper but when the German aeroplanes bombarded places in England and France, you always hear they kill women and children. They never kill man. They call the Germans Huns. A          
August Lembrecht Lewis & Clark 5/31/18 1458 1-3 On 5/1 said "I know this damn government is getting nutty but it won't last long. They are getting a good licking in France all the time now from the Germans...All they can do is to monkey around with the Germans in this country but it won't last long. I am awful sorry the Germans in Helena don't stick together and do something. I whistle and sing German and they don't bother me so far and they better don't as I don't stand no monkey business. Somebody is liable to get hurt." A 56 blacksmith 2/12/19 9/14/19 7
Leo Reno Lewis & Clark 5/31/18 1459 10-20 On 5/2 said "These damn fools still think they can lick Germany, but all they get is a good licking in France every day and I feel sorry for the poor boys, that they have to go over there to be killed like sheep for they will never come back except as cripples and that will do them good for they haven't any business going over there and I would like for every damn one of them to be a cripple before they go over. I be damned if I would kiss this rotten flag. I would take it to the shithouse, that is where it belongs anyway. To hell with them, country, flag and President. I would fuck them all. I am an Austrian and they can all kiss my ass. Just wait until the Germans bring the black, white and red over here, then we will get even with them and then some. Then good night with the Stars and Stripes, Army, Navy and Mr. damned Wilson. A 42 cook 1/17/19 4/14/21* 27
Tony Diedtman Lewis & Clark 5/31/18 1460 10-20 real name George Antone Dittman. On 4/26 said "This damn Country is not worth a damn and as soon as Germany gets over here me for the old Country. Then they can all go to hell. I always wonder why the Germans in this Country don't wake up and use their brains. It is getting worse all the time, but the time will come pretty damn quick. How can this damn country expect the Germans to buy any Liberty Bonds if they take their property away? Ist trial ended in hung jury. 2nd jury "recommended him to the mercy of the court." S. Ct. reversed on 5/8/20 58 Mont. 13 190 Pac. 117 (1920) #4398 A 43 baker 7/31/18 5/22/20 22
Leo Daly Lewis & Clark 9/14/18 1465 dism. 10/23 editorial published in Butte Daily Bulletin questioned legitimacy of Montana Council of Defense.            
R.B. Smith Lewis & Clark 9/14/18 1465 $4,500 10/23 editorial published in Butte Daily Bulletin questioned legitimacy of Montana Council of Defense. Conviction reversed. 57 Mont 563 190 Pac. 107 (1920) #4487 B          
William F. Dunn Lewis & Clark 9/14/18 1465 $5,000 10/23 editorial published in Butte Daily Bulletin questioned legitimacy of Montana Council of Defense. Conviction reversed per curiam 57 Mont 591 190 Pac. 121 (1920) #4411, based on State v. Smith above B          
Richard Lohe Lewis & Clark 12/24/18 1473 $250 Info filed 12/24 says that on 4/16 D remarked, when solicited in a beer hall for a subscription to the Red Cross fund, said 'If you can save the souls of my boys from hell, then I will give you some money. Can you get my boys out of the army for $2? I have three of them." See HI 12/25/18, p. 2; 2/11/19 p.6 B          
Tom Bakke Lincoln 5/4/18 142 $200 The United States had no business to get into this war with Austria and Germany. They deserve to be defeated and I hope the Kaiser will lick hell out of the United States troops and all their allies over there. B          
Peter Roych Lincoln complaint 5/6/1918 143 dism "What, me fight my brother, I guess not–I Austrian, fuck your god damn country. I not fight for it. Fuck you damn American."            
Peter Berggren Lincoln 6/3/18 147 dism "This is not my government; this government is no good; I am a Sweed (sic) we Sweeds are all for Germany; one of us can lick 10 Americans; I am going back to Sweden, join the army and then our whole army will join the Germans and kill every American and Englishmen on the Continent, and I want to help do it."            
Tom Murphy Lincoln 6/3/18 148 $200 "God dam the government; God dam the soldiers going across the pond to kill white men. The United States is no good; the government don't amount to a shit." B          
Louis R. Fowler Madison 4/18/18 309 4-8+$3K (DID NO TIME) Aka Joseph Clingenhoefer. On 4/10 said 'Let the sons-of-bitches eat hay (with reference to raising wheat to feed soldiers, thereby advocating the curtailing of production); This is not our war; we have no business being in this war; Wilson did not do right in getting us into this war to fight somebody else's battles; If I do any fighting in this war, I will fight the British; Anyone who will wear the uniform of the United States is a damn fool; I will not buy Liberty Bonds but will dispose of my property, go to South America and let germany have my money; He must think I am a damned fool, to buy Liberty Bonds and to go against my own." D. paid $10,000 cash bond and defended himself. S. Ct. affirmed on 3/29/21 59 Mont. 346 196 Pac. 992 (1921) #s 4301, 4400 A          
Thomas Barker Meagher 6/3/18 313 dism couldn't locate case file            
Pete Ervik Mineral 4/6/18 41 2-4 Known in court papers as Pete Arvek or Arvik. On 4/3 said at Saltese " I would sooner fight for the Kaiser than I would for the United States; fuck the United States and fuck the flag. I mean it." A 36 laborer 4/26/18 6/8/19 14
John J. Manning Mineral 4/24/18 42 $200 At Iron Mountain said on 4/16 "Hurrah for the Kaiser; fuck the United States." B          
Octave B. Morin Mineral 4/24/18 43 dism. On 4/12 said "I hope they (meaning Germany) will whip you (meaning the United States). I hope every one of your boys (meaning the soldiers and sailors of the U.S.) get killed over there too. I am hard boiled."            
Joe Reilly Mineral 5/7/18 44 2- 5 At Saltese on 4/24 said "I am an American in a pig's ass hole. I am an I.W.W. and an agitator. Fuck the flag; fuck the United States. I love the Germans." A 38 miner 5/11/18 5/11/19 12
Louis Effinger Missoula 3/26/18 1121 $800 On 3/23 outside store, D read aloud from headlines of Missoula Sentinel the words "Germans take 25,000 men -- 700 guns" then said "I hope the Dutch get every son of a bitch of a one of them." Punched in face by fellow Rattlesnake farmer L.E. Tucker. B          
Herbert Mansolf Missoula 3/26/18 1122 2-4 At Dwyer's Saloon in Huson on 3/23 advised W.H. Wagar, a draft registrant, not to answer call for a physical exam and said "Well, there will be damn German flag flying over the United States inside of a year. The Americans never did amount to nothing and they will amount to a whole lot less when the war is over." Testimony by Wagar and bartender shows Mansolf had been drinking. A 29 laborer 5/25/18 6/8/19 13
Alarick Johnson Missoula   1127 missing IWW secretary in Missoula. Arrested 4/18. Records missing when microfilmed.            
Thomas Burans Missoula 3/27/18 1130 1-2 On 3/24 told draft registrant "Get out of the country and the jurisdiction of the draft board. Don't enlist. They are only tin soldiers anyway and they are persecuting the IWW." A 62 laborer 5/25/18 6/8/19 13
Robt. Vanlandingham Missoula 4/24/18 1131 $300 On 4/13, in reply to request to hang a Liberty Bond poster in Equity Store, where worked, said "Some more of your damned war--damn the soldiers and you too--if there weren't any soldiers there wouldn't be any war." Testimony re antagonistic female employee. B          
Matt Johnson Missoula arraigned 4/24/18 1132 2.5- 5 On 4/19 said that the United States Liberty Bonds were no good. That the government would not back them up. That the man that bought them would never get his money back. That he would lose it. That the U.S. government was no good." A 33 lumberjack 5/11/18 4/18/20 24
Tom Cason Missoula 4/23/18 1134 1.5 - 3 On 4/21 said "To Hell with the United States government; shit on them; I don't give a damn for them, I'm a wobbly." J. instr. re being a wobbly not a crime refused. J. instr. re intoxication--may take into account in determining intent. A 64 teamster 6/15/18 10/3/20 28
Fred Mass Missoula 7/2/18 1137 NG On Train #42 running east from Missoula, said on 4/15 as to why he did not buy LIberty Bonds, "You fellows are damned fools for buying Liberty Bonds as there are nothing but a bunch of grafters at the head of it and they are not going to graft off my money. Before I will give any money for the Government to graft on in foreign countries I will quit my job." J. instruction given by Judge Asa Duncan that "criticisms of anyone in authority in relation to the activities of the United States in its prosecution of the war...by citizens of the United States are not forbidden unless such criticism violated the law as given by Instruction No. 1."            
Reyn. Quackenbush Missoula 6/4/18 1141 dism. On 5/25 said to a boy in the military service, "To hell with this country. Fuck the United States. Your son is no better than you are. He is fighting for the wrong cause. The Red Cross is alright, but the rest of it is all in the wrong." Dismissed on 10/9 for insufficient witnesses.            
Albert Hanson Missoula 9/17/18 1144 dism. That on 8/31 said "I would like to see the Kaiser take full control of the American Army today," and speaking of Officer Phelps of Missoula police said "Look at that brass-buttoned son of a bitch. They don't have them in Germany, and when Germany takes this country they won't have them here." Also, "They ain't doing much with the Germans so far. There is a lot of talk in the papers, but they haven't hurt them yet." Dismissed 12/21: Has been in jail 4 months, model prisoner; in state of intoxication when remarks made...            
Charles Evanoff Musselshell complaint 5/24/1918 268 dism. LL notes: C.E. was from Bulgaria and spoke English very poorly. A Liberty Bond salesman asked him to make a donation to the American Red Cross. Didn't understand, said he didn't want to help. Salesman said C.E. was sassy; case went to court. C.E. arrested and paid $2,480 bail (set at $2,000. He cashed in several certificates of deposit and over-paid). Never appeared in court. Got scared and ran away to Chicago. Roundup found him and he came back for trial. But his lawyers convinced judge no way could have said anything malicious. Employer, a mill owner in Chicago, sent many letters to court in C's defense. C never got $2,000 back, but did get back the $480 after much hassle.            
Martin Ferkovich Musselshell complaint 9/17/1918 278 10-20 On Friday, 9/13 (day after registration day) said in Waddy Russell (Kumor & Russell) saloon in Carpenter Creek, "This Government cannot take me (meaning that the United States Government could not select him under the national selective service regulations). I would kill the first man who tried to take me. Austria is my country and I won't fight against her. I wouldn't shoot my own brother. I would shoot someone else first. The Government didn't do right; they didn't give me my citizenship papers. The Kaiser is all right; he didn't bother me. The Kaiser didn't bother this country." Newspaper says F a native of Croatia, not Austria. Sentence commuted to 3-10 yrs. by state board of pardons (Wellington Rankin, chair) on 10/21/21. Extensive transcripts. A 39 miner 2/22/19 11/16/21 33
Harry Smith Musselshell complaint 10/2/1918 281 NG No court notes. Roundup Record (no date) says "Smith got into trouble during the Fourth Liberty Loan drive last fall when he refused to buy a bond when solicited by the Klein Committee. He admitted on the stand that he had said that the bonds would never be paid and that the United States would abrogate its European loans. In explanation he stated that when the bonds became due in 1942 money will have lost its value as a medium of exchange and therefore there was no occasion or reason to pay them. He admitted destroying $641 of W.S.S. saying that he did not want the money back and characterized the interest on the stamps and bonds as 'blood money.' Smith is regarded as a religious fanatic. He came to Klein last August." Jury out 30 mins.            
Josef Hocevar Musselshell complaint 10/18/1918 282 6-12 On 10/4 at the Roadside Saloon, said "Patton is working this Liberty Loan business too strong (referring to a member of the LIberty Loan committee). I am an Austrian. This government is no good. I have been a citizen of this country since 1888. I am not a pro-German, I am an Austrian. President Wilson had no business getting into this war. President Wilson is heap shit. Fuck the Americans. Fuck them (referring to soldiers and sailors engaged in the military and naval service of the United States) too." Extensive transcripts. Pardoned. A 52 miner 2/22/19 8/18/21 30
Harry Haddock Park 6/24/18 709 NG "This is [exhibiting a I.W.W. card] the only card and the only union. To hell with the United States. I am not going to fight for them rich sons-of-bitches. To hell with they army. I would not be a God damn soldier for nobody."            
Leon Marks Park 7/8/18 711 dism "God damn the Government, I do not want any Liberty Bonds and have no use for any."            
John Latka Park ? ? ? Mentioned in a newspaper article but not in MM records            
Victor Erhardt Park ? ? ? Mentioned in a newspaper article but not in MM records            
August Adam Miller Powell 4/17/18 320 2-4 On 3/23 said "Good. We will fuck the British and the French and we will fuck the United States before we get through." A 36 rancher 4/29/18 5/11/19 13
Charles Purcell Powell 4/18/18 321 dism. On 4/6 said "If you are working for the government, you are nothing but a God Damn scab." Also charged with being a deserter. Delivered to federal officials, punished, inducted into army.            
John Kelly Powell 4/18/18 322 $300 On 3/23, when told German armies were driving back and defeating soldiers of Great Britain, said, "I am damn glad of it." B          
B.F. Lensing Powell 5/25/18 324 dism. On 3/1 "said 'I hope they sink every American ship' meaning he hoped that German submarines would sink every American transport upon the high seas bound from the U.S. to France and carrying American sailors and soldiers and that the submarines would drown and kill American sailors and soldiers." Convicted on testimony of his two sons who denied calling him a son of a bitch.            
A. Zimmer Powell 7/18/18 327 $200 The United States can never whip Germany . . . B          
Dan Barton Powell 7/18/18 329 dism I hope that the Germans will kill every damn American that went over there . . .            
William Hogstatz Powell 8/31/18 330 dism. On 6/29 in his home near Ovando said "I hope the American people starve to death. That will be the only way to settle this war." Mo. to dismiss: "Remarks made in home and in presence of his wife, Alta. At time of making complaint, Alta was unfriendly to the D. No other witnesses. Advised D denies and wife would now corroborate..."            
O.O. Odekirk Prairie 8/1/18 37 NG "This is a rich man's war and we have no business in it; that this is a rich man's war and a poor man's fight; that the rich men rule the country. . ."            
Thomas Peterson Ravalli 3/9/18 375 $200 Germany can lick the whole world including the United States and she is going to do it B          
John Perry Ravalli 4/11/18 376 ? Germany is going to win the war in Europe, and then she is going to come over here and lick us            
C.E. Carson Ravalli 5/11/18 379 NG On 4/29 at an auction sale near Corvallis, told a Corvallis man his daughter wanted to be a Red Cross nurse but would not give his consent because he had heard from a high official of the Adventist Church that "a whole shipload of Red Cross nurses were to be sent home as they were about to become mothers." Defense atty argued Red Cross not an agency of the government and not covered by the sedition law but JP Whaley agreed with CA Kurtz, who argued that anything said that tended to injure the army or navy was seditious.            
Theodore Klippstein Richland 11/11/18 119 4-10 On Registration Day (9/12) at Lone Ridge School House near Poplar, told registrar: It is a wonder that our God Damned Government didn't send us some papers before we got in war so we could have had something to say about it and then we wouldn't have had war; we had no business to be in war as the people didn't want it; it was only the damned officials we sent to Washington that got us in war; only the big moneyed men wanted war, the rest of the people didn't want it and our damned government didn't give the people a chance to say whether they wanted war; the germans were the best soldiers anyhow." Copy of registration card in file, showing D's age at 39 and DOB as 12/31/78. Testimony re conversation at schoolhouse and questions to D re his anger that suspected of being German sympathizer because painted window trim green. A 40 farmer 1/16/19 2/6/21 25
Fred Rodewald Rosebud 5/29/18 290 2-5 On 4/23 said "in substance as follows: that we (meaning the people and citizens of the United States) would have hard times unless the Kaiser didn't get over here and rule this country." A 42 farmer 10/13/18 4/18/20 19
Fay Rumsey Rosebud 8/1/18 291 2-4 On 4/1 said "that he wished the Germans would come in and clean up the U.S. and especially Sarpy Creek; that President Wilson was in cahoots with the money power of this country, and that if he was drafted he would not fight for the U.S. but would fight for the Kaiser." A 49 rancher 10/13/18 10/12/19 12
Earnest V. Starr Rosebud 8/1/18 292 10-20 In March, was haled before a local committee and asked about failure to make Liberty Bond contributions and forced to kiss the flag. Said "What is this thing anyway? Nothing but a piece of cotton with a little paint on it, and some other marks in the corner there. I will not kiss that thing. It might be covered with microbes." Starr's name lives on in several books and articles on the flag. Habeas corpus denied Ex parte Starr 263 Fed 145 (D. Mont. 1920) but see Bourquin's comments. Sentence commuted to 5-20 years June 4, 1921, making him eligible for parole. A 48 farmer 10/13/18 9/18/21 35
William Arnoldy Rosebud 9/10/18 299 8-16 Said on 7/20 "These free taxi rides given to the soldiers at Miles City were just for the purpose of getting them into private houses, so that they may have intercourse with women (meaning the wives, sisters and daughters of the citizens of Miles City) and get war babies.' Meaning and intending thereby that the soldiers of the USA were having illicit carnal intercourse with the wives... A 55 farmer 10/13/18 4/23/19 7
Ed Horn Sanders 5/8/18 200 1-2 On 3/9 said in Jocko "That the heads of the government at the White House ought to be killed and that then the war would stop." A 35 teamster 6/24/18 11/16/19 17
Nick Nelson Sanders 5/8/18 205 dism. On 4/9 said that "the IWW would within a short time become the government" or words to that effect and "who in hell Uncle Sam was" or "Who in hell is Uncle Sam anyway" or words to that effect." 4/10 complain: "Advocated curtailing production in this country of lumber and lumver products necessary and essential to the prosecution of the war." Mo/dismiss: remarks "approach borderline of sedition. unable to find evidence justifying prosec. for syndicalism."            
W.H. Taylor Sanders 5/8/18 205 dism. same as Nelson            
James Weaver Sanders 5/20/18 207 $300 On 3/20 said "To hell with you, Swanson, and to all of you Americans, too" and "Come up and have a drink, you patriotic Scissor Bills" and "To hell with the government; we have no government" or words to that effect and "Come up and have a drink on the Kaiser." B          
C.C. Hansen Sanders 6/10/18 211 NG On 4/25 in Noxon said "It is not the German agents who put ground glass in the wool. It is not the German agents who caused the Airplanes to be defective. It is not the German agents who sawed steel partly in two and filled it with lead. There is no justice in the courts of the U.S. for the working man. I hope that the Germans will get to Paris inside of 2 weeks. It is the Americans who did all these things (meaning thereby to exonerate the agents of the empire of Germany from all blame connected with the [above charges]            
Clifford R. Weare Sanders 11/15/18 213 NG On 6/28 said in Noxon, "God damn them (meaning the soldiers of the U.S.), they won't fight because they (meaning the soldiers of the Imperial Government of Germany) are killing them because they won't fight. The Germans will start a movement and will pinch off a bunch of American troops and I don't give a damn if they do. I would sooner live under the rule of the Kaiser than under England; England rules the United States. The moneyed interests of this country brought on this war..." More statements in transcript of witnesses testimony.            
Samuel Nickey Sheridan 5/21/18 243 NG "I don't know that we have a flag; I don't know the American flag; it don't mean anything to me. The flag to me does not appear to be any more than a box of candy in a show case."            
J.S. Geiser Sheridan 5/21/18 244 $200 "All war is wrong. It is all wrong to buy liberty bonds or thrift stamps. We should remain firm; and I urge you not to buy or purchase any liberty bonds or thrift stamps." B          
Peter Lutness Sheridan 5/21/18 249 $200 "The kaiser is as good as President Wilson. President Wilson is a no good son of a bitch." B          
Hans P. Olsen Sheridan 4/17/18 261 dism? "If the US should get a good crop, it will prolong the war, and everybody here will have to get killed off before the war ends."            
John Connors Sheridan complaint 4/11/1918 262 dism "I am sorry for you fellows; I'm afraid you can't win the war; I'm afraid your flag isn't strong enough."            
Claude Hudspeth Silver Bow 5/18/18 5051 dism. no details in record.            
H.F. (Harry) Lucas Silver Bow 4/12/18 5053 5-15 In Crowley's saloon at 39 E. Broadway on morning of 4/2, someone remarked that Germany would not have such an easy mark since this country got into the war. Then D, who had come into Butte that morning after overnight trip from B&M camp said "Fuck the bloody country. Fuck the war. I am an IWW and proud of it. Fuck the flag." Acc. to Anaconda Standard, "Witnesses seized him and ran him out of the place and to the city hall. L., 44, a native of Cincinatti, family in Ky., in Butte 24 years, served 4 years in army during S.A. War and later in govt. service. A 44 cook 1/12/19 7/24/21 30
Marco Pagura Silver Bow 5/18/18 5063 vacated no details in record.            
Matt Marevich Silver Bow 5/18/18 5064 dism. no details in record.            
Louis Medak Silver Bow 5/18/18 5065 NG no details in record.            
Ray Helvey Silver Bow 5/18/18 5066 3-6 no details in record. A 48 farmer 1/19/19 8/15/20 19
Nick Mamales Silver Bow 5/18/18 5067 dism. no details in record.            
Martin Morley Sweet Grass 8/6/18 246 $200 "This government is bad, We cannot do anything at the present time, when this war is over we will show this government, John D. Rockefeller and the rest of the millionaires that we are going to run the country. To Hell with the government, the laws are no good, this damn government is run by the moneyed power and I do'’t like it." B          
John McCafferty Teton 4/25/18 413 NG "stating that he was a Kaiser man and 'I don’t care a God dam I am a Kaiser man from the ground up.'"            
A.L. McKenzie Teton 6/1/18 418 $350 "I have not given a damned cent to the Red Cross and I am not going to; these men driving around and collecting for the Red Cross do not run in any money, and use it to speculate with; what are these Red Cross nurses? They picked up all of the loose women in Great Falls and made Red Cross nurses out of them." B          
Robert Schroeder Teton 6/3/18 419 $200 "To hell with the United States–I will take those God Damned papers–meaning his citizen papers–and stamp them into the ground." B          
Eric(k) Schneider Teton   437 dism info not in case file            
  Toole       AG report 1918-20 indicates one conviction, but nothing in county records.            
  Valley       AG report 1918-20 indicates one conviction, but nothing in county records.            
Allen Steward Wheatland 5/1/18 46 dism? "United States Soldiers, Hell" defendant enlisted in Engineer Corps alias A.J. Bateman, alias Jim Hart            
Howard Klee Wheatland 4/18/18 48 dism? "To hell with the United States Government Liberty Loan Bonds."            
Harry Harris Wheatland 5/25/18 49 dism "This is what you get for carrying your Class A-1 card. You are getting it right now."            
Minnie Harris Wheatland 5/25/18 50 $200 "I wish to God someone will rule this Country besides the dirty Americans." B          
Herman Bausch Yellowstone 4/15/18 1441 4-8 On 4/13 (while being grilled by local committee?) said "I do not care anything about the Red, White and Blue; I won't do anything voluntarily to aid this war; I don't care who wins this war; I would rather see Germany win than England or France; I am not prepared to say whether or not Germany is in the right; We should never have entered this war and this war should be stopped immediately and peace declared; We should stop sending ships with supplies and ammunition to our soldiers; As far as I am concerned, I do not care if the Third Liberty Loan is a success or a failure." A 36 farmer 5/23/18 9/12/20 28
J.A. Griffith Yellowstone 7/18/18 1458 8-16 On 7/8 in the Blue Front Saloon in Billings (and later in a nearby lodging house) said (referring to the IWW trial in Chicago) "We are going to give this cock-sucking government a good fucking." Defended by Geo. Vanderveer as he worked for the IWW as a job delegate. Lengthy transcript. S. Ct. reversed saying jury influenced by his language, but statement did not fall within the ambit of the sedition law. 56 Mont. 241, 184 Pac. 219 (1919) #4340 A 47 laborer 12/16/18 10/1/19 8
F.J. Israel Yellowstone 7/27/18 1463 1.5 - 3 (DID NO TIME) On 7/25 said "A spy (meaning a German spy) is just as good as a soldier (of the U.S.) They (meaning German sympathizers who had put ground glass in surgical dressings intended for use upon American soldiers) ought to put typhoid germs and tubercular germs in the dressings; the would kill them off faster; ground glass may not kill. Every soldier is nothing more than a devil. This government is each day becoming more and more like the Kaiser form of Government." Sentence suspended in 1921. A          
 

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